What is infertility?

According to WHO “Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive a pregnancy after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse”. It affects around 1 in every 6 couples of reproductive age.
Infertility can be caused by a number of reasons, including male, female, or a combination of factors. This includes issues with sperm or egg production, the structure or function of the male or female reproductive systems, and/or hormonal and immunological disorders

Causes of Female Infertility

Female fertility can be influenced by a

  • Woman’s age,
  • Tubal disease, or fallopian tube abnormalities
  • Ovulation problem
  • Endometriosis
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Fibroids
  • Sexually transmitted illness causes salpingitis


Causes of Male infertility

Male fertility can be impacted by issues with sperm production or transport, such as:

  • Vas deferens is obstructed or missing (tubes)
  • Low sperm count and/or sperm production
  • A large number of sperm with unusual shapes
  • Sperm production failure
  • Fragmentation of sperm DNA
  • Cystic fibrosis and chromosomal variations genetic illnesses.


Diagnostic test for Female Infertility

  • A basic gynaecological examination
  • Testing for sexually transmitted diseases (some STDs can cause infertility)
  • Blood tests to rule hormones such as LH, FSH, thyroid hormones, androgen hormones, prolactin, estradiol (E2), and progesterone. Anti-mullerian hormone, or AMH, may also be tested for.Some of this blood test  must be performed on a specific day of your menstrual cycle. FSH, for example, is often measured on day 3 of your cycle. Progesterone levels are often measured on day 21 or 22 of your cycle.
  • Ultrasound is used to detect polycystic ovaries, bigger ovarian cysts, fibroids, and, in rare cases, to confirm ovulation.
  • Ultrasound is also used to assess the shape and thickness of the uterine lining. An ultrasound can also be used to do an antral follicle count, which forecasts the amount of eggs accessible in a woman’s ovaries.
  • HSG, or hysterosalpingogram, to ensure that the fallopian tubes are not clogged and to assess the morphology of the uterus.
  • Endometrial biopsy is extracting a small amount of tissue from the uterine lining (or endometrium). This is not a common test.
  • Hysteroscopy is a procedure that includes inserting a telescope-like camera through the cervix into the uterus to examine the inside of the uterus. If an HSG exam revealed probable abnormalities or was inconclusive, this is done.  During this visit, your doctor may also do an endometrial biopsy.
  • Sonohysterogram, which includes inserting a catheter into the uterus and then assessing the uterus and uterine walls with ultrasound.
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy, which is possibly the most invasive reproductive test. This test is only performed if symptoms suggest endometriosis, as part of treatment for blocked fallopian tubes, or in some cases of unexplained infertility.


Diagnostic test for Male Infertility

  • A urologist will perform a general physical examination.
  • Specialized sperm analysis, which includes genetic testing of the sperm (to look for the existence of antibodies) and the examination of immobile sperm (to see if they are dead or alive).
  • Blood testing to monitor hormone levels, most commonly FSH and testosterone, but also LH, estradiol, and prolactin.
  • STD screening.
  • Ultrasound examination of the seminal vesicles and scrotum.
  • Urine testing (post-ejaculatory urinalysis) to screen for retrograde ejaculation.
  • Testicular biopsy is a simple surgical operation that involves the excision of testicular tissue.
  • Vasography is a type of X-ray that is used to detect obstructions in the male reproductive organs.


Treatment for Infertility in Male

  • If the cause is a varicocele (widening of the veins in the scrotum) or a blockage in the vas deferens, which transports sperm, surgery may be required.
  • Antibiotics are prescribed to treat infections of the reproductive organs.
  • Medications and counselling to treat erection and ejaculation issues.
  • Hormone therapies are used when there is an issue with a low or excessive amount of specific hormones.


Treatment for Infertility in Female

  • Fertility medications and hormones are used to help a woman ovulate or to restore hormone levels.
  • Surgery to remove tissue that is impeding fertility (for example, endometriosis) or to unblock blocked fallopian tubes.
  • In both men and women, assisted reproductive technology, or ART, can be used to treat infertility.  

Assisted reproductive treatment methods

  • IUI (intrauterine insemination): Sperm is harvested and deposited directly within the uterus of a woman while she is ovulating.
  • IVF (in vitro fertilisation): The sperm and egg are separated and combined in a laboratory. The fertilised egg develops for 3 to 5 days. The embryo is then implanted in the woman’s uterus.
  • GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer) and ZIFT (zygote intrafallopian transfer): The sperm and egg are promptly collected and deposited in a fallopian tube. Both sperm and eggs are delivered into the fallopian tube via GIFT. With ZIFT, sperm and eggs are combined in a lab before a fertilised egg is inserted in a tube after 24 hours.

Book your appointment for female infertility with our fertility experts and best infertility specialist in Dahisar at KK SPECIALITY CLINIC AND HOSPITAL today.