Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
PCOS – POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME
PCOS is a common endocrine and reproductive condition in women of reproductive age. One in every 10 women in India has polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS may have irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles, as well as high amounts of male hormone (androgen). The ovaries may generate a large number of tiny collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to release eggs on a regular basis
What is the Cause of PCOS?
The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown, however it may be caused by a mix of hereditary and environmental factors.
Infertility and PCOS
PCOS has a negative impact on fertility since women with the syndrome do not ovulate (release an egg) every month because their ovaries produce too much oestrogen. Because ovulation is irregular, periods become irregular, and high levels of hormones like testosterone can affect egg quality, inhibit ovulation, and leads to infertility.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of PCOS?
- Irregular menstrual cycles– Infrequent, irregular, or prolonged menstruation cycles, or less than eight periods per year, or none at all.
- Hair growth on the face, chest, and back is excessive.
- Hirsutism is a condition characterised by excessive hair growth.
- Male pattern hair loss
- Hair thinning
- Raised, velvety dark discolouration over the nape of the neck, underarms, elbows, and beneath the breasts.
What is the Effect of PCOS on the Body?
PCOS symptoms frequently appear around the time of the first menstrual period during puberty. PCOS can also arise later in life.
- Premature birth or miscarriage
- Metabolic syndrome is characterised by high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excessive body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol levels. All of these risk factors increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and stroke.
- Obese women are more likely to suffer from sleep apnea.
- Anxiety and depression
- Disorders of eating
How can I Know if I have PCOS?
Ultrasound – determine the size of the ovaries and whether or not they contain cysts. The test can also determine the thickness of the uterine lining (endometrium).
- Androgen levels are high ( total and free testosterone )
- LH is elevated ( Luteinising hormone )
- FSH levels that are normal (Follicle stimulating hormone )
- A high LH/FSH ratio (more than 3:1)
SHBG is low ( sex hormone binding globulin )
- Prolactin levels are slightly increased.
Fasting insulin levels are elevated.
- Dyslipidemia with abnormal GTT (glucose tolerance test).
What are the treatment options for PCOS?
In PCOS, lifestyle and diet play an important role in symptom management.
- Changes in food and activity are examples of lifestyle modifications. Losing weight and reducing symptoms can be aided by a nutritious diet and increased physical activity. Also aids in the body’s usage of insulin, lowers blood glucose levels, and may aid in ovulation.
- Dietary balance and hypocaloric intake
- Exercise- daily severe physical exercise sessions of at least 30 minutes per day or 150 minutes per week
- Metformin is used to treat glucose intolerance.
- Menstrual cycles must be regulated.
- Oral contraceptive pills – oestrogen and progestin are present. These are provided to women who do not want to have children. They reduce androgen production while also regulating oestrogen. Reduces the risk of endometrial cancer, excessive hair growth, and acne as well.
- Ovarian drilling-Ovarian drilling is a laparoscopic procedure that destroys the androgen-producing tissue in the ovaries using a laser or electrocautery. In PCOS patients who have not responded to hormonal therapy, this technique is considered for ovulation induction.
- Progestin therapy may be used for treatment of PCOS , It is given for 10-14 days per month helps control menstruation and protect against endometrial cancer.
For irregular periods, book your appointment today at KK speciality clinic and hospital and cure your PCOS problems and infertility with our top gynecologist Dr. Kausha Shah in Dahisar.